The Natural Home Building Source
The Natural Home Building Source
The Natural Home Building Source

10 - HTM high thermal mass exterior wall details for solar house plan with EPS foam and surface bonding cement and sloped glass window details. Click here for the main chapter of our free HTM Passive Solar Design eBook

HTM high thermal mass exterior walls are very adaptable to many different styles of exterior fascia from surface bonding cement SBC structural stucco over EPS blueboard foam to aluminum siding. Naturally, the south face is dominated by the full floor-to-ceiling glass in a cold climate, but the other three sides are open to personal taste. These pictures outline the standard, low-maintenance covering of surface bonding cement. This method is very low-tech in that all you need is a small barrel mixer, some water, a shovel and a strong back. Application of the surface bonding cement is done with a trowel, just like stucco or natural plasters. The key with SBC is it's a structural coating, adding strength and waterproofing to any wall.

HTMs are adaptable to any style of fascia, but one-coat structural stucco SBC is the classic plaster-style choice.

Regardless of exterior siding choice, the first step is to waterproof all footers and walls with at least a couple layers of mop-on coating. Best practice is add sheets of roll bithumine like Grace Ice and Water Shield®. Surface bonding cement is waterproof in its own right, without additional treatment, but we recommend taking extra precaution, especially with bermed and below grade foundation walls. Water transference must be discouraged to preserve healthy indoor air quality. Even with an SBC covered wall, it is best to add a couple coats of good quality 'bathroom rated' non-porous latex paint to seal the walls. Molds and mildew must have fuel and water to grow. Unlike conventional gypsum drywall boards or strawbales with natural plasters, a properly sealed concrete wall can be kept nearly sterile and not transfer any moisture. Good ventilation and warm sealed walls are key to a healthy indoor air environment.

All exterior wall surfaces must be insulated to ensure total thermal isolation. Best practice is at least four inches of extruded EPS blueboard ~R20 on walls and six inches ~R30 on the roof. Adding a couple more inches can make a big difference to overall sustainability, especially in a cold and cloudy climate. Blueboard goes only the outside of the home, instead of inside the home walls, as with conventional wood frame structures. Cellulose insulation in the walls and attic absorbs water, packs down, invites vermin, and generally loses its ability to insulate over time. Fiberglass insulation is the worst for indoor air quality and spray foams on the interior are questionable due to off-gassing and fire danger. We have always used extruded 'blueboard' for one-coat stucco exteriors, but the newer generation expanded polystyrene foamboard is an option and may have less off-gassing. Just don't use the classic white Styrofoam
® 'bead board' and avoid polyisocyanurates, since they both tend to absorb moisture and lose effectiveness. Straw bales are particularly effective under the eaves of an HTM for seasonal insulation... and even permanent exterior insulation outside the walls.

One of your construction options is to attach 2 by 4 wood or metal studs to the walls vertically then nail or screw the EPS blueboard foam to these 'sleepers'. Best practice is to make the top and bottom of your sleeper gaps airtight with a blocker board and some caulk to avoid convective energy loss. Key with using sleepers is the open area between each stud can be covered with reflective coating and left as 'dead air' space to save on materials. Otherwise, the gap is filled solid with cut pieces of 1-1/2 inch wide blueboard. We have even seen clients forego the sleeper studs and simply glue the insulation directly to the waterproofed concrete walls. After the insulation is glued and screwed securely to the wall, it can be covered with chicken wire or stucco lathe and coated with a layer of latex modified surface bonding cement, which is SBC with a liquid latex modifier additive to help it stick better. Endless other options exist for the exterior... one coat stucco, wood or aluminum siding, stone, half logs, and natural plasters over straw bales.

Exterior walls are mop-coated for waterproofing and then 2by4 sleepers are anchored and glued in place Sleepers are covered with at least four inches of EPS foamboard, anchored to the sleepers and glued in place

Please note that an HTM is not always bermed or buried into a hillside. Underground house designs are always an option with an HTM, but most people do opt for the conventional, totally above ground appearance. The same choice applies to sloped glass, just bear in mind that vertical glass does not supply nearly as much solar gain as sloped glass. You can expect up to 30% less direct solar gain in the deep winter months with vertical glass versus sloped as pictured here.

One man crew working the batch plant for SBC one-coat structural stucco


North wall is at grade, bermed into hillside with drainage pipe left showing

HTMs are easily adapted to full underground burial or completely above ground designs. The photo at left shows the north side of an HTM being made ready for installation of a sod roof. The waterproofing 'wing insulation' layers are not visible beneath the sand, but you can see the fabric wrapped French drain pipe as it is being laid against the roof. This pipe carries most of the water away from the ground around the home much like a gutter, keeping the ground dry and therefore warm, nearly constant in temperature. Later, the gravel you see will be extended full length and the roof and surrounding ground covered with a double layer of sod for an underground earthhome. Sod on the roof really doesn't add anything to the home's energy efficiency unless you had several feet of soil underneath, but the aesthetic qualities are wonderful. With a natural grass roof this home will be nearly invisible from the north.

HTMs exteriors are not limited to any one particular exterior appearance. Whether stucco, brick, stone, wood or log siding, aluminum or steel paneling, the same basic design principles apply to the construction of the building underneath. Please do not interpret the emphasis on block and stucco work here as an endorsement of that particular approach. Our point is: the exterior of an HTM is not that relevant to its function. Just be sure to adhere to ALL the basic design principles outlined in this free eBook. Any local contractor should be more than capable of working on the project... nothing really 'alternative' about it other than the passive sustainable function inherent with design items like wing insulation. You take what free solar gain there is available in your area and supplement the rest, just like any other home.

HTM exteriors are can be covered with any fascia for any architectural look you wish.
Latitude and longitude map of USA

If you worry about hail damage, ultimately the design incorporates eaves that overhang enough to shield glazing plus a few inches for wind-driven angle. If you have plenty of due-South facing glazing and the overhang does not shade in the heating cycle months, you can usually 'afford' to slope glazing less than optimal angle. Vertical glazing allows about 30 percent less solar energy to penetrate than sloping glass at 90 degree angle to winter sun altitude. If you know the altitude of sun on coldest days of the year (mid-January normally) you can subtract that figure from 90 to determine the optimal angle of glazing. Builders traditionally just round off to 60 degrees to make carpentry much easier and that figure works well in the northern latitudes. One rule of thumb for estimating is: latitude for your location plus 10 to 15 equals optimal slope of glazing.

Here's a look at a south face design sketch which incorporates a shed roof and a full overhang past the sloped glass. Overhang designs still manage to generate full solar gain during the peak heating months while providing generous amounts of shade in the summer. One advantage of this particular overhang design is that the shade cloth can now be hung vertically across the front of the posts instead of horizontally, awning style, out in front of the home. This is but one example of the type of design choices you will have with your HTM. Don't be lead to believe that the home you see on this site is the only design, as there is very little limit to your options and choices. For example, you'll notice that the roof shown here is sketched as being built with standard BCI joists instead of T&G planks and logs. Also note this sketch outlines a very deep frostwall. Some parts of the country call for frostwalls to extend up to four feet below the finished grade.

Planterbeds along the south face are an important part of any HTM. They store an amazing amount of energy in the moist soil, while providing crops, air quality, and a rewarding hobby. The planterbed in this sketch can stop at the floor slab or extend all the way down to the bottom of the footer for an even larger thermal storage mass. Best practice is to incorporate planterbeds with sloped glass into your design while taking preventing overheating with such shade fabric and roof overhangs.

Attached greenhouses are built with sustainable irrigation and planterbed construction.

Whether you install vertical or sloped glass, it is key to note that wood framed windows are common to high end residential construction, but you need to consider the practical benefits of vinyl windows and thermopane 'glazing units'. They are less expensive and can be custom made to any size. Vinyl is less likely to shrink and develop air leakage. And most importantly, vinyl provides a thermal break. It does not allow thermal conductive heat loss like an aluminum or steel frame.

South face of home with sloped timbers awaiting greenhouse style glass for the interior planterbed

All fixed vertical and sloped windows along the south facing planterbed and clerestory thermopane units should be at least 1 inch overall (two 3/16 inch glass with a 5/8 inch gap) or 7/8 inch overall (two 1/8 inch glass with a 5/8 inch gap). More than a 3/4 inch gap can lead to energy robbing convection currents within the space. Less than a 5/8 inch gap can more easily allow conductive heat/cooling loses. Residential windows are generally thinner with a minimal gag, less effective against heat/cold transmission, more delicately vacuum sealed, not as well tempered, and more prone to condensation problems. Patio door glass, for instance, is not really suited even for vertical windows and not possible to use sloped. Buying thicker, commercial 3/16 inch thick tempered glass thermopane units (retail store window glass) is recommended. Using commercial components wherever possible, is one key to saving money while building an HTM home.




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Fed-Ex and UPS Ground

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Motor Freight Shipping

Servel refrigerators, Sun-Mar composters, larger custom shade panels and larger Kobe range hoods ship via motor freight 'common carrier', as noted on the website and receipt. Scheduled deliveries are not possible to arrange, but We automatically email tracking information after shipment, so you can anticipate delivery date.Common carrier motor freight is shipped on a pallet with boxes covered in clear plastic stretch-wrap and is defined as street-side motor freight drop, which differs from small package services like UPS and Fed-Ex, in that the truck driver does not bring Merchandise into your building or onto the porch. Street-side motor freight drop is a basic delivery service, often in a full-size tractor trailer, where driver parks in street while you unload and inspect the Merchandise. Kobe range hoods, shade panels, and Sun-Mar composters are not shipped with lift-gate service. You must unload boxes from the tractor trailer by hand. If you require lift gate service to lower the Kobe range hood down onto the roadway, with what they call a mechanical 'Tommy lift', it is available for an additional $65 to $100 fee. Please arrange and pay for this optional service at time of order. Always check the number of pieces (boxes) present against the stated waybill shipping receipt tally. As with any motor freight shipment from any distributor, be certain to carefully examine ALL of the Merchandise, not just the outside of shipping box(es), before signing and accepting delivery. It is imperative with motor freight shipments that ALL products be unboxed and fully inspected PRIOR to accepting delivery. Regardless of what the delivery driver may say, you MUST inspect fully before signing and accepting the delivery. It is the freight truck driver's job to wait while you open and inspect shipment for damages. Simply looking at the outside of the box(es) is NOT adequate. Damaged Merchandise (that particular box, not all the boxes) must be refused delivery. Once someone signs for shipment, it confirms Merchandise was received free of ANY damage and removes liability from the transportation carrier. We can only assume that damage reported later and not refused delivery, was caused by the Client, and not the freight carrier. Any subsequent attempt to file a claim for loss or damage will NOT be accepted by the transportation carrier, distributor, or Our company, TheNaturalHome.com.

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All returns, cancellations and/or exchanges must first be authorized in writing by TheNaturalHome.com at service@thenaturalhome.com. Client may not ship any Merchandise back until We supply return Merchandise authorization RMA number and address for the shipment. Orders often do not ship back to the same warehouse they shipped from originally. Contact us with invoice number and reason for return or exchange to obtain an RMA number and instructions. No returns, refunds or exchanges will be authorized more than 30 days after original purchase payment date. Design consultation services, DVDs, knit shade material, water tubes, greywater and septic system parts are not returnable for refund or exchange for any reason. Once payment has been made, custom panel orders are cut and enter the production system and cannot be cancelled after payment is made. No return on any remnants or discontinued items. Any authorized returns of Merchandise must be in the original carton, in new unused condition, and returned freight prepaid to Our designated warehouse. Merchandise originally shipped via motor freight carrier on a pallet, may not be returned via package delivery service such as UPS or Fed-Ex. Original actual shipping cost will be deducted from any refund due along with up to 15% restocking fee on the Merchandise. This restocking fee includes the 3% credit card processing on original purchase, which is not refunded by MasterCard or VISA. Please understand that items on Our website are advertised as "Free Shipping", which is to be understood as "there is no extra charge for delivery of PURCHASED Merchandise". UPS, USPS, Fed-Ex and motor freight carriers charge us a fee for delivery of Merchandise, which We must recoup on returns. Kobe, for instance, bills a flat-fee of $40 and $45 for business and residential Fed-Ex shipments and $162 and $186 for motor freight carrier drops. Sun-Mar and Servel units ship via motor freight carrier for anywhere from $120 to $300+ per unit, depending upon zip code and drop site designation. Kobe, Sun-Mar, Clivus Multrum, Quanics, Dometic and Servel returns are manufacturer-direct, drop ship items and may be subject to an additional manufacturer's restocking fee. Discontinued, clearance items are not eligible for return or exchange. If an item is returned without original packaging intact, or is damaged, found to be used, or otherwise not ready for resale, it may be refused and returned to sender at their expense, so always insure shipment.

Lost and Stolen Shipments

Tracking information is emailed following shipment on all orders so client can anticipate delivery date. Custom size shade panels are made-to-order and can take up to ten business days to produce and ship. All other 'stock items' normally ship within three business days. Should you not receive email shipping information, please send a request for tracking number in writing to: service@thenaturalhome.com. Note it can take up to 48 hours for a given tracking number to appear on transportation company website. During this time, shipment status may be listed as "order processed and ready for pickup". Traditionally, this just means the shipment has not yet reached transportation company terminal and scanned after being unloaded from truck that picked those package(s) up. Overdue shipments must be reported to merchant in writing within one week after anticipated delivery date. Cardholder hereby agrees that only two possibilities exist for a shipment that did not arrive as anticipated. Possibility #1) Transportation company shows shipment as still being in-transit. In this case, merchant will file a 'tracer' request on behalf of cardholder with transportation company and they will search for box(es) at all company freight terminals. Cardholder is required to fully cooperate by filling out any forms requested, returning any voice messages left, and replying to any email messages sent by transportation company or merchant. Your patience and consideration is required and greatly appreciated while transportation company attempts to find the shipment. Replacement or refund is authorized solely at merchant discretion. Cardholder is not permitted to cancel order. Cardholder is not permitted to dictate choice of replacement or refund. And cardholder is not permitted to dictate time frame for settlement and ultimate delivery date for merchandise. Possibility #2) Transportation company shows shipment as being delivered. In this case, merchant will file a 'lost shipment' claim on behalf of cardholder with transportation company. A lost shipment claim can take up to two weeks to resolve and unfortunately, the transportation company rarely, if ever, pays the insurance claim. Ideally, we only ship to cardholder, personally, at their residence or business 'home' credit card billing address, but regardless of designated drop site and receiving person and whether or not a signature was required at time of delivery, cardholder is solely responsible for merchandise security after drop is confirmed by transportation company. After transportation company confirms delivery to shipping address, no signature required, there will be no refund or replacement for lost or stolen merchandise for any reason. Cardholder must immediately file a theft report with their local police department for item stolen from property or designated drop site. Cardholder hereby agrees to relinquish any and all right to file a credit card chargeback sales reversal for merchandise lost in transit by transportation company or merchandise reported lost or stolen after delivery is confirmed by transportation company. Should cardholder file a chargeback in violation of this terms of service agreement, cardholder will be held responsible for reimbursement of any and all merchant services processing fees incurred as a result of the frivolous chargeback, which can be anywhere from $35 up to several hundred dollars.

Shade Panel Production

Our commercial grade knitted shadecloth carries a one year manufacturer's replacement warranty against defects in material and workmanship. You can expect at least 5 years of service when installed properly and well over ten years when used seasonally in a temperate climate. Client must inspect shade panels within one week of delivery in order to be able to report any damages. Rips, tears, and aesthetic damage you find more than one week after delivery are not reimbursed or replaced by the freight carrier or TheNaturalHome.com. Additionally, merchandise that has been installed is not eligible for return or replacement for damage claims. Fabric is knitted polyolefin, primarily high density polyethylene HDPE, specially treated for durability and UV resistance. Wind damage from loose panel whipping, snagging, and abrading against the structure or cable framework is much more harmful in the long run than simple exposure to sunlight. Knit shade material should be installed hung underneath, not pulled across the top of cable or framework, to avoid abrasion and snagging damage. Chemical, fire, heat, abrasion, and snagging damage are not covered under manufacturer warranty. Shade panel warranty inspection returns must be authorized in advance and returned freight prepaid to designated location for visual inspection. TheNaturalHome.com will only pay the cost to ship warranty repaired or replaced merchandise back to client after inspection confirms damage was a material or workmanship defect. The following are trade-standard, non-valid reasons for requesting warranty inspection: First, there is no up-down, right-left, top-bottom or front-back reference point for any panel. Panel 'Width and Length' are measured from outside-edge to outside-edge of the sewn perimeter hem at the four corners only. Knit material has inherent tension and flex in the looming process that will resolve aesthetic issues when installed taut with rope lacing. Grommets on one side of panel are unlikely to line up with grommets on the opposite side or from one grommeted pinch pleat to the next. Exact one foot on-center grommet spacing, specific grommeted pinch pleat centering, and special placement on a particular side for grommets is not warranted. Any panel over 12 foot wide may have a noticeable factory knitted loom splice seam without notice in advance since the 20, 26, and 32 foot wide stock roll width fabrics are manufactured on side-by-side looms. We traditionally cover this seam with a grommeted pinch pleat, but it is possible to order plain cloth without a center GPP, per automated quoting form. Aesthetic issues are not warranted. For instance, the White 50% color knitted shade material can sometimes arrive with patches of orange discoloration and spotting as a result of the manufacturing process. This discoloration will dissipate after installation in the sunlight. Shade material may always be slightly wrinkled from rolling onto storage tube or shipping and knit appearance can vary from sample swatches presented and may also vary between various stock widths. Minor aesthetic flaws in knit appearance, stitching, and snags are not a structural panel failure problem and not warranted. Shade material is lockstitch knitted to prevent structural unraveling. Longevity is the same regardless of aesthetic appearance flaws in the fabric knit or perimeter webbing. If need be, one can use needle and thread to pull small flaws together and super-glue sealed. It is not considered a warranty-related defect unless it affects panel performance. Special fire resistant certified shade materials are not available. The finish 'Length' ordered is what we produce by cutting enough fabric to fold hem and GPP. The only time to anticipate deviation in finish dimension purchased is when 'Width' is a stock material width of 6, 8, 10, 12, 20, 26 and 32 foot. Then, finish 'Width' is likely going to be two to three inches less after folding and sewing perimeter hem and any length-wise grommeted pinch pleats. ALL other times, the size panel you request is the finish size we do our very best to produce. Knitted shade netting is inherently difficult to work with due to tension releasing when cut to custom sizes, so trade-standard warranty for free replacement is a four inch tolerance. As measured at four corners, any error of five inches, or more, is warranted for free remake, replacement, or refund at our sole discretion. This accuracy guarantee does not apply to shapes other than rectangles or any panel dimension over 32 foot. Errors of less than five inches are considered for remedy on a case-by-case basis only when the panel has not been installed and can be resold as a new-unused remnant. Special grommet placement requests are not warranted and grommet spacing at exactly one foot on center is not warranted. Click here for knit shade material engineering specifications and product MSDS sheet.

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Merchandise purchased from TheNaturalHome.com is covered only under that product's manufacturer warranty. Client is solely responsible for presenting all claims under those warranties directly to the warrantor. TheNaturalHome.com makes no consultation, service work, or system design warranties, whether express or implied and shall not in any way be held responsible for any customer misuse of Our products or misunderstanding of any and all of Our designs, whether express or implied. All responsibility and liability for any and all damages caused by viruses contained within the electronic files of this site are disclaimed. All information contained within this site and supplied by any and all TheNaturalHome.com consultations, design work and service work is governed by the following information disclaimer. Be aware that septic tank effluent, composting toilet materials, and greywater alike contain bodily fluids and as such are regulated as Hazardous Materials by the Federal government. Such hazardous materials (raw sewage) should be handled only by licensed professionals trained in the proper safety procedures and using proper safety equipment. If you are unsure of the correct handling and safety procedures, please check with your local health department for more detailed information.

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Client does hereby irrevocably consent to and authorize the anonymous use and reproduction by Us, or anyone authorized by Us, of any and all artwork, digital images, or stories submitted via email, phone or fax. Our primary concern is protection of your privacy. We never release Client information to anyone for any reason, so any use would be purely anonymous. We will not pay a fee or provide compensation of any sort, now or hereafter, for information, solicited or otherwise, that We share. Client hereby agrees to allow reproductions to be presented online or in printed format and hereby gives Us unrestricted right and permission to copyright and use, re-use, publish, and republish artwork, stories or digital images submitted without restriction as to changes or reproduction hereof in color or otherwise, made through any and all media now or hereafter known for illustration, art, promotion, advertising, trade, or any other purpose whatsoever. This agreement shall be binding upon Client and their heirs, legal representatives and assigns.

Information Disclaimer

The information from or through this site and from or through Architerra Enterprises, Inc. (d.b.a. The Natural Home Building source and TheNaturalHome.com is provided 'as-is', 'as available', and any and all warranties, express or implied, are disclaimed (including but not limited to the disclaimer of any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose). We are not an engineering or architectural design firm. We are not licensed electricians or plumbers. We do not accept any legal liability whatsoever for any 'errors and omissions' perceived or otherwise. Any and all consultation given, or website information provided, may contain typos, errors, omissions, problems, or other limitations. Merchandise specifications are subject to change at any time by manufacturer without any advance notice from Our company or the manufacturer. Product specifications and installation instructions are likewise subject to possible error and may change at any time without Our knowledge. Blueprints, sketches, and any written consultation are provided for informational educational purposes only and not intended for construction-ready application without approval first by locally licensed structural engineer and local building department regulations. Our sole and entire maximum liability for any inaccurate information, for any reason, and user's sole and exclusive remedy for any cause whatsoever, shall be limited to the amount paid by the customer for the information received (if any cost was involved). We are not liable for any indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages including but not limited to damages for loss of business, loss of profits, litigation, or the like, whether based on breach of contract, breach of warranty, tort (including negligence), product liability or otherwise, even if advised of the possibility of such damage. The limitations of damages set forth above are fundamental elements of this website, communications, and information provided without such limitations. No representations, warranties or guarantees whatsoever are made as to the accuracy, adequacy, integrity, reliability, currentness, completeness, suitability or applicability of the information to a particular situation. Complaints by Client to any rating agency, company review, or personal referral concerning Merchant or Merchandise in direct disregard of this terms of service agreement are to be considered libel and will be prosecuted as such, if need be.

Consultation and Service

Written and verbal consultation on the specifics of any project is governed by this terms of service agreement, with or without purchase of Merchandise. Technical assistance is different with us because Our staff members live with what We sell. Housing, septic, composting and greywater systems all include free on-going consultation, so We'll take the time to answer your questions and ensure your project is a success. At the very least, We strive to save you money by avoiding costly mistakes, both short and long term. If We don't have an answer to your question right on the spot, We'll take the time to research it further and get back to you. We can consult on the phone, if you wish, but email allows us to much more completely answer your questions with sketches and links to related articles. Keeping everything in writing is a sure way to avoid any confusion with "you said he said" situations later. Our sustainable housing products are low-tech in nature, but their design is typically complicated by the seemingly endless installation variables for unique locations and applications. Any and all consultation (blueprints, photos, written word and sketches) purchased from TheNaturalHome.com are the intellectual, copyrighted property of TheNaturalHome.com. HTM house plans, septic system packages and greywater kit components Were designed and priced for the typical home and based upon the average soil type. Whether or not your local building department requires stamped engineer approval, you are well advised to take sample blueprints, sketch plans, and system consultation suggestions to a local professional engineer (PE). Local PEs are familiar with your soil type and more aware of unique building codes and concerns in your area. Most importantly, a local PE is readily available for the necessary site visits. your PE is then responsible for preparing a folder of notes and details which confirm the structural integrity, viability and liability for your project. TheNaturalHome.com is not an architectural design nor an engineering firm. We do Our best to consult on your project, but site specific engineering, load calculations, soil viability testing and/or custom blueprinting are not included in any consultation service or system package We sell. Communication is intended only for the paid Client recipient(s) and may be confidential and/or legally privileged and must be treated as such in accordance with state and federal laws. Any disclosure, copying, distribution or action taken in reliance on the content is strictly prohibited.

Fiberglass Water Tubes

Water Tube and Cap ("Item") is manufactured for Client on special order basis by an independent company ("Manufacturer"). Manufacturer's warranty and guarantee, and special terms and conditions of sale and delivery apply to this Item. No warranty or guarantee is provided, expressed, or implied by Merchant, TheNaturalHome.com. Merchant and Manufacturer do not assume any liability or responsibility for damage in transit. Only the transportation company is responsible for damage in transit. Before signing and receiving Item from transportation company, Client should demand to see packing list from Item shipment. If shipment is short Item (for instance: three caps, not four) or damaged (any Item defects), refuse the goods until the transportation agent notes the shortage or damage in writing on the freight receipt waybill. Always require a copy of the annotated waybill with shortage or damage noted in writing and signed/initialed by driver.Watch for hidden damage and inspect all Items fully before signing and accepting the shipment from a freight carrier. Client signature is testament that Item arrived in the proper amount and in undamaged condition. Hidden damage or shortage (anything found after delivery) is Client's sole responsibility to file claim with transportation company. Merchant and Manufacturer do not assume any responsibility or liability for Item damage during/after installation. Manufacturer guarantees Item is up to its established standard of manufacture as to material and workmanship. In all claims, liability is limited to replacement of the invoice value of any Item claimed to be defective. Client assumes all risk and liability whatsoever resulting from the use of such Item, whether used singly or in combination with other substances. The materials purchased hereunder (Item) shall be examined and tested upon receipt thereof, and before the materials are used and within thirty days from such receipt, Client shall notify Merchant in writing of any claims on account of quality thereof. Failure to so notify Merchant shall constitute a waiver of all claims with respect to Item, and in any event the use of Item by Client shall be deemed to mean satisfactory performance on the Item and Merchant. No claim of any kind (whether as to Item delivered or for non-delivery of Item) shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of Item covered hereby with respect to which any damages are claimed. Merchant and Manufacturer will accept no returns unless previously authorized in writing with Return Merchandise Agreement. Item returned without RMA written permission is liable to non-acceptance and return at expense of Client. RMA will specify 25% restocking fee on Item, plus deduction for original cost of crating and shipping, plus Client is responsible for all return shipping arrangements and all related expenses. There are no promises, agreements, or understandings between Client and Merchant and Manufacturer not contained in this document. Should you use your own form to make a purchase based on a price quote from Merchant, the conditions contained herein shall be deemed to be incorporated in said order or contract or invoice.